Here’s a look astatine accusation and statistic concerning vaccines successful the United States. For vaccines related to coronavirus, spot Coronavirus Outbreak Timeline Fast Facts.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides vaccine recommendations by age, arsenic good arsenic by disease.
For much than 100 years, determination has been nationalist discord regarding vaccines based connected issues similar idiosyncratic rights, spiritual freedoms, distrust of authorities and the effects that vaccines whitethorn person connected the wellness of children.
Exemptions to vaccines autumn into 3 wide categories: medical, spiritual and philosophical.
As of January 2022, 44 states and the District of Columbia person enacted authorities allowing spiritual exemptions from vaccines, and 15 states let philosophical (non-spiritual) exemptions.
1855 - Massachusetts mandates that schoolhouse children are to beryllium vaccinated (only the smallpox vaccine is disposable astatine the time).
February 20, 1905 - In Jacobson v. Massachusetts, the US Supreme Court upholds the State’s close to compel immunizing against smallpox.
November 13, 1922 - The US Supreme Court denies immoderate law usurpation successful Zucht v. King successful which Rosalyn Zucht believes that requiring vaccines violates her close to liberty without owed process. The High Court opines that metropolis ordinances that necessitate vaccinations for children to be schoolhouse are a “discretion required for the extortion of the nationalist health.”
1952 - Dr. Jonas Salk and his team make a vaccine for polio. A nationwide trial leads to the vaccine being declared successful 1955 to beryllium harmless and effective.
1963 - The first measles vaccine is released.
1983 - A schedule for progressive immunizations is recommended by the CDC.
March 19, 1992 - Rolling Stone publishes an nonfiction by Tom Curtis, “The Origin of AIDS,” which presents a mentation that ties HIV/AIDS to polio vaccines. Curtis writes that successful the precocious 1950s, during a vaccination run successful Africa, astatine slightest 325,000 radical were immunized with a contaminated polio vaccine. The nonfiction alleges that the vaccine whitethorn person been contaminated with a monkey microorganism and is the origin of the quality immunodeficiency virus, aboriginal known arsenic HIV/AIDS.
August 10, 1993 - Congress passes the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act which creates the Vaccines for Children Program, providing qualified children escaped vaccines.
December 9, 1993 - Rolling Stone publishes an update to the Curtis article, clarifying that his mentation was not fact, and Rolling Stone did not mean to suggest determination was immoderate technological impervious to enactment it, and the mag regrets immoderate harm caused by the article.
1998 - British researcher Andrew Wakefield and 12 different authors people a insubstantial stating they had grounds that linked the vaccination for Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) to autism. They assertion they discovered the measles microorganism successful the digestive systems of autistic children who were fixed the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The work leads to a wide summation successful the fig of parents choosing not to vaccinate their children for fearfulness of its nexus to autism.
2000 - The CDC declares the United States has achieved measles elimination, defined arsenic “the lack of continuous illness transmission for 12 months oregon much successful a circumstantial geographic area.”
2004 - Co-authors of the Wakefield survey statesman removing their names from the nonfiction erstwhile they observe Wakefield had been paid by lawyers representing parents who planned to writer vaccine manufacturers.
May 14, 2004 - The Institute of Medicine releases a study “rejecting a causal narration betwixt the MMR vaccine and autism.”
February 2010 - The Lancet, the British aesculapian diary that published Wakefield’s study, officially retracts the article. Britain besides revokes Wakefield’s aesculapian license.
2011 - Investigative reporter Brian Deer writes a bid of articles successful the BMJ exposing Wakefield’s fraud. The articles authorities that helium utilized distorted information and falsified aesculapian histories of children that whitethorn person led to an unfounded narration betwixt vaccines and the improvement of autism.
2011 - The US Public Health Service finds that 63% of parents who garbage and hold vaccines bash truthful for fearfulness their children could person superior broadside effects.
2014 - The CDC reports the fig of measles cases astatine 667.
June 17, 2014 - After analyzing 10 studies, each of which looked astatine whether determination was a nexus betwixt vaccines and autism and progressive a full of implicit 1 cardinal children, the University of Sydney publishes a study saying determination is nary correlation betwixt vaccinations and the improvement of autism.
December 2014 - A measles outbreak occurs at Disneyland successful California.
2015 - In the aftermath of the taxable parkland outbreak, 189 cases of measles are reported successful 24 states and Washington, DC.
February 2015 - Advocacy radical Autism Speaks releases a statement, “Over the past 2 decades, extended probe has asked whether determination is immoderate nexus betwixt puerility vaccinations and autism. The results of this probe are clear: Vaccines bash not origin autism. We impulse that each children beryllium afloat vaccinated.”
May 28, 2015 - Vermont Gov. Peter Shumlin signs a measure removing the philosophical exemption from the state’s vaccination law. Parents whitethorn inactive petition exemptions for aesculapian oregon spiritual reasons. The instrumentality goes into effect connected July 1, 2016.
June 30, 2015 - California Gov. Jerry Brown signs authorities closing the “vaccine exemption loophole,” by eliminating immoderate idiosyncratic oregon spiritual exemptions for immunizing children who be school. The instrumentality takes effect connected July 1, 2016.
January 10, 2017 - Notable vaccine skeptic Robert F. Kennedy Jr. meets with President-elect Donald Trump. Afterwards, Kennedy tells reporters he agreed to seat a committee connected “vaccination information and technological integrity.” A Trump spokeswoman aboriginal says that nary determination has been made astir mounting up a committee connected autism.
August 23, 2018 - A survey published successful the American Journal of Public Health finds that Twitter accounts tally by automated bots and Russian trolls masqueraded arsenic morganatic users engaging successful online vaccine debates. The bots and trolls posted a assortment of anti-, pro- and neutral tweets and straight confronted vaccine skeptics, which “legitimize” the vaccine debate, according to the researchers.
October 11, 2018 - Two reports published by the CDC find that vaccine exemption rates and the percent of unvaccinated children are connected the rise.
2019 - The CDC confirms 1,282 idiosyncratic cases of measles successful 31 states.
January 2019 - The World Health Organization names vaccine hesitancy arsenic 1 of 10 threats to planetary wellness successful 2019.
March 26, 2019 - Rockland County, New York announces the “extremely unusual” measurement of banning unvaccinated individuals nether property 18 from nationalist places. One week later, a justice puts a clasp connected that and prohibits the region from enforcing the ban.
May 10, 2019 - Washington Gov. Jay Inslee signs authorities removing the philosophical exemption for the MMR vaccine from the state’s schoolhouse immunization requirements.
May 24, 2019 - Maine Gov. Janet Mills signs a measure into instrumentality removing each non-medical exemptions to vaccinations. The instrumentality volition instrumentality effect successful September 2021, and schoolchildren who assertion a non-medical exemption anterior to the instrumentality taking effect volition beryllium allowed to be schoolhouse if their genitor oregon guardian provides a written connection from a healthcare nonrecreational indicating they’ve been informed of the risks of refusing immunization.
June 13, 2019 - New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo signs authorities that removes nonmedical exemptions from schoolhouse vaccination requirements. The instrumentality goes into effect immediately.
September 4, 2019 - Facebook announces that acquisition pop-up windows volition look connected the societal media platforms erstwhile a idiosyncratic searches for vaccine-related content, visits vaccine-related Facebook groups and pages, oregon taps a vaccine-related hashtag connected Instagram.
September 9, 2019 - California Democratic Gov. Gavin Newsom signs 2 bills that bounds aesculapian exemptions for vaccines of schoolchildren.
October 4, 2019 - The Department of Health and Human Services announces that the United States has officially maintained its measles elimination presumption of astir 2 decades.
December 19, 2019 - The US Food and Drug medication announces the support of a vaccine for the prevention of the Ebola virus for the archetypal clip successful the United States. The vaccine, Ervebo, was developed by Merck and protects against Ebola microorganism illness caused by Zaire ebolavirus successful radical 18 and older.
December 27, 2019 - A survey published successful the aesculapian diary JAMA Network Open finds that a azygous dose of the quality papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine whitethorn beryllium conscionable arsenic effectual arsenic two oregon 3 doses astatine preventing cancer-causing HPV infection.
February 3, 2020 - The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) announces that a objective proceedings for an HIV vaccine has been discontinued since the vaccine was not recovered to forestall infections of quality immunodeficiency virus, the microorganism that causes AIDS.
February 17, 2020 - A survey published successful the aesculapian diary BMJ Case Reports finds that a 3rd of each reported cases of measles person complications specified arsenic pneumonia, hepatitis and viral meningitis. The researchers study that anti-vaccination campaigns person contributed to an summation successful cases successful children and adults. Research shows complications hap astir commonly successful radical nether 5 oregon supra 20 years old.
April 28, 2021 - Connecticut Gov. Ned Lamont signs authorities that removes the spiritual exemption for schoolhouse vaccinations. The instrumentality volition spell into effect for the 2022-2023 schoolhouse year.